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Pathways to Toronto : A Collaborative Partnership


Produced by students and faculty at the University of Toronto, Pathways to Toronto is an online exhibition that explores the life stories of six individuals who moved to Toronto to live and work over the past two centuries.

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Would You Pass The Test?

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“The Immigration Act a weapon”: Panama Maru and the Exclusion of Immigrants, 1913

On 17 October 1913, Panama Maru arrived at Victoria, British Columbia. The ship was a regularly-scheduled passenger liner of the Osaka Soshen Kaisha Line, carrying 56 passengers identified by immigration authorities as “Hindus,” although many were probably Sikhs. Ten of the passengers were promptly landed, and another seven followed after a day, based on their having established domicile in Canada before.[1] The remaining passengers, thirty-nine in total, were held for further examination.

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